Adair, William. The Frame in America, 1700-1900: A Survey of Fabrication Techniques and Styles (exhibition catalogue). Washington, D.C.: American Institute of Architects, 1983. An essential reference for identifying American picture frame styles; informative section on gilding and frame construction.

Adair, William. The Frame in America, 1860-1960 (exhibition catalogue). Washington, D. C.: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, 1995.

Burns, Stanley. Forgotten Marriage: The Painted Tintype & The Decorative Frame 1860-1910. New York: The Burns Collection Ltd, 1995. Many illustrations of Victorian frames for photographs; useful for identifying and dating frame styles.

Eastlake, Charles. Hints on Household Taste in Furniture, Upholstery and Other Details. London: Longmans, Green and Company, 1878; reprint ed., New York: Dover Publications, 1969.

Fairbanks, Jonathan L. and Bates, Elizabeth G. American Furniture 1620 to the Present. New York: Richard Marek, 1981.

Gill, Tracy. One Hundred Years on the Edge: The Frame in America 1820 to 1920 (exhibition catalogue). Santa Monica, California: Tatistcheff/Rogers, 1996.

Grimm, Claus. The Book of Picture Frames. Translated by Nancy M. Gordon and Walter L. Strauss. New York: Arabis Books, 1981. Primary emphasis on European frames; includes "Frames in America," by George Szabo.

Heydenryck, Henry. The Art and History of Frames. New York: James H. Heineman, Inc., 1963. A pioneering survey of European and American picture frame styles.

Rinhart, Floyd and Marion. American Miniature Case Art. New York: A. S. Barnes and Company, 1969.

Smeaton, Suzanne. The Art of the Frame: American Frames of the Arts and Crafts Period (exhibition catalogue). New York: Eli Wilner & Company, 1988. A helpful and well-illustrated guide to early 20th C. American frame makers.

Wilner, Eli. Antique American Frames: Identification and Price Guide. New York: Avon Books, 1995. A general survey of American picture frames.